John Ishiyama, Anna Batta,
and Angela Sortor, "Political parties, independents and the
electoral market in sub-Saharan Africa," Party
Politics, 19 (September 2013), 695-712. [Available
E. E. Schattscheider (1942: 1) once wrote that 'modern
democracy is unthinkable save in terms of the parties'.
Indeed, parties perform functions that are crucial to the
development and maintenance of democracy, such as
representation, integration of voters into the political
system, and recruiting and training leaders. Furthermore,
political parties hold the government accountable while
articulating opposition and dissent (Aldrich, 1995; Diamond
and Gunther, 2001; Randall and Svasand, 2002). Others have
argued that political parties play a key role in integrating
diverse populations and in creating a common political
identity (Apter, 1971; Coleman and Rosberg, 1964;
- Figures and
- Table 1. Number and percentage of independent
candidates who ran for election by country.
- Table 2. Did an Independent run in district? Pooled
logit regression results for Ghana, Malawi and
- Table 3. Did an Independent run in district?
Disaggregated logit regression results for Ghana, Malawi
- Table 4. Did the percent independents received in
prior elections in a district affect whether an
Independent ran in the subsequent election?
(Second paragraph of Conclusions) The one consistent finding
across all models was that incumbent governing party
performance has a strong dampening effect on the entrance of
independent candidates into a political competition. The
incumbent governing party (which presumably has greater
access to administrative capital) has a greater impact on
squeezing out independent candidates (and voters for
independent candidates) because it offers inducements for
political elites NOT to run as independents. The results
reported above support these expectations. The performance
of incumbent governing parties was associated with a reduced
likelihood of the appearance of independent candidates (as
predicted by hypothesis 1).