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Nisha Mukherjee, "Party systems and human well-being," Party Politics, 19 (July 2013), 601-623. [Available at ]

First paragraph:
Political institutions play an important role in society by providing structure and organization to politics. They constrain and mould behaviour of political agents by providing the contours within which political agents interact with each other and society, thereby influencing the way politics unfolds within a state. The significance of political institutions has been emphasized by prominent scholars such as Lijphart (1999) and Norris (2004), who have drawn attention to the importance of institutional engineering in improving democratic governance. One such political institution is the nature of party systems.

Figures and Tables:
Table 1. Impact of ENPP on human well-being.
Table 2. Impact of legislative fractionalization on human well-being.
Table 3. Impact of ENPP on spending outcomes.
Table 4. Impact of ENPP and health spending on human well-being.
Table 5. Impact of ENPP on human well-being (with additional controls: tax revenue and district magnitude).
Appendix A: ENPP
Appendix B: ENPP summary statistics

Last Paragraph:
(First paragraph of Conclusions) This article analyses the impact of party systems on human well-being and shows that multiparty systems are associated with better welfare outcomes. A higher number of ENPP indicates a more representative and competitive system, which enhances human well-being directly and indirectly via greater spending. In making this argument and presenting evidence that supports the theoretical link between effective number of parties and welfare outcomes, this article explains variation in human well-being among democracies. The article disaggregates democratic regimes in terms of party systems and contributes to the existing literature analysing the consequences of other institutions, e.g. parliamentary (Gerring et al., 2009) or centripetal systems (Gerring et al., 2005).

Last updated November 2013