Oleh Protsyk and Stela
Garaz, "Politicization of ethnicity in party manifestos,"
Party Politics, 19 (March 2013), 296-318.
[Available at http://ppq.sagepub.com/content/vol19/issue2/
Electoral manifestos of political parties have been used for
estimating party positions in a large number of policy
areas. The ethno-cultural dimension of party competition is
not one of these areas. Having estimates of parties'
positions on ethnic issues, along with estimates on other
policy issues, is important both for empirical description
and theoretical model-building. Such estimates help to
operationalize concepts that are at the core of literature
dealing with the formation and persistence of group
identities, ethnic mobilization and nationalism, diversity
management and power-sharing (Chandra, 2004; Gurr, 1993;
Hechter, 2000; Horowitz, 1985; Olzak, 2006). These estimates
are also of relevance to the general discussion on issues of
party system formation and party competition in culturally
heterogeneous societies (Alonso and Ruiz-Rufino, 2007;
Birnir, 2007; Coakley, 2008; Lijphart, 1977). To our
knowledge, there have been no systematic attempts to analyse
cross-nationally whether and how political parties formulate
their positions on ethnicity-related issues in party
manifestos. This article is an attempt to fill this gap. It
seeks to contribute substantively and methodologically to
the research agenda on party manifestos.
- Figures and
- Table 1. Ethnicity-relevant and ethnicity-irrelevant
statements in selected CMP variables.
- Table 2. Examples of manifesto statements classified
on the multicultural/integrationist dimension.
- Table 3. Examples of multicultural statements
rank-ordered by the strength of ethnic claims.
- Figure 1: Distribution of ethnicity-related
statements across the CMP's ethnic and non-ethnic
- Figure 2: Salience of ethnic issues as a percentage
of the total number of manifesto quasi-sentences
- Figuress 3 a& b: Distribution of statements on
the multicultural-integrationist dimension; Distribution
of multicultural statements
- Figure 4: Party positions on the
- Appendix I: Coding scheme of ethno-cultural
As our findings indicate, ethno-cultural issues are more
politically salient than the CMP estimates suggest. Many
parties that operate in ethnically diverse societies are
forced to take a position on ethno-cultural issues. Party
manifesto analysis can help to structure inquiry on such
position-taking and can improve our general understanding of
how ethnic issues become politicized. At the moment, party
manifesto analysis remains a severely underutilized tool by
students of ethnic politics and we hope that the approach we
propose can contribute to changing this