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Eric S. Heberlig and Bruce A. Larson, "Congressional Parties and the Mobilization of Leadership PAC Contributions," Party Politics, 16 (July, 2010), 451-475. [Available at http://ppq.sagepub.com/content/vol16/issue4/ ]

First paragraph:
Political parties must find resources to finance the achievement of their collective good, i.e. winning office. In the United States, congressional parties increasingly rely on donations from incumbent office-holders contributing to the party and its candidates from their principal campaign committees (PCCs) and leadership political action committees (LPACs) (Dwyre et al., 2007). LPAC critics have complained that they allow their sponsors to advance their own political careers by contributing to colleagues in exchange for support in leadership contests (e.g. Baker, 1989; Mann and Ornstein, 2006), and that LPACs underwrite the personal goal achievement of the PAC sponsor more than the collective good of the party, much like leaders of 'self-financed' parties (Hopkin, 2004).

Figures and Tables:
Table 1. Incumbent contributions in the 1990, 1998 and 2004 election cycles
Table 2. Republican house members' Personal Campaign Committee (PCC) versus Leadership Political Action Committee (LPAC) contributions, rare events analysis
Table 3. Democratic house members' Personal Campaign Committee (PCC) versus Leadership Political Action Committee (LPAC) contributions, rare events analysis
Table 4. Party orientation of contribution networks - PCCs versus LPACs
Table 5. Number of members with leadership PACs, by position, 1990-2004
Table 6. Party orientation of LPAC contribution networks in 2004, by position
Appendix: Measure of Non-Incumbent Ideology
Table A1. Predicting non-incumbents' ideology (DW-NOMINATE scores), OLS with robust standard errors

Last Paragraph:
Ambitious members no doubt use LPACs to advance their own career and power goals, but the party ensures that LPAC contributions advance the interests of the entire party caucus. By controlling the structure of opportunities for institutional advancement, parties organize themselves to guarantee that members advance their own personal goals and the party's collective goals simultaneously.

Last updated July 2010