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Menachem Hofnung, "Unaccounted Competition: The Finance of Intra-Party Elections," Party Politics, 14 (November, 2008),726-744.

First paragraph:
Regulation of party finance traces its roots to the emergence of mass parties in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. When parties ceased to be the business of small elites and notables, and opened their ranks to mass participation, the funding of general elections quickly became a burning issue. The relatively high cost of electoral campaigns, and the accumulated evidence that competitors for public office are willing to make all kinds of corrupt promises in return for their campaign expenditures being covered, has given rise to the idea that electoral funding should be provided by the state in return for the parties' acquiescence to subjecting themselves to certain minimal demands of accounting, auditing and reporting (Alexander, 1989: 3-7).

Figures and Tables:
Table 1. Comparative knowledge of electoral and finance rules in different electoral systems
Figure 1. Exclusion and inclusion in party candidate selection methods
Table 2. Public control of intra-party races in non-majoritarian electoral systems

Next to Last Paragraph:
By hastily installing a porous system of intra-party financial regulation, it became difficult to ensure that Israeli candidates adhered to the rules. Although, despite the lack of enforcement, when compared to other nonmajoritarian electoral systems, the Israeli system ensures a limited degree of transparency as far as intra-party competition is concerned. Even such limited transparency paints an alarming picture, as it becomes clear that without effective enforcement and real sanctions any borderline opportunity will be exploited by one candidate or another. Politicians in other countries may not reach the extremes exhibited in Israeli primary races, but judging by what has been exposed in Israel, and the indifference towards financial dealings in internal races in European democracies, it would be rather premature to assume that such races are immune to corruption and manipulation by interested third parties.

Last updated December 2008