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Kim Eric Bettcher, "Factions of Interest in Japan and Italy: The Organizational and Motivational Dimensions of Factionalism," Party Politics, 11 (May, 2005), 339-358.

First Paragraph:
The internal politics of political parties invites study for at least a few excellent reasons. In most democracies, parties have a strong bearing on leadership recruitment, policy-making, and interest representation. Internal party activity in these areas is equally important as parties' overall involvement, because parties do not automatically coordinate the diffuse members, opinions, and interests that compose them. The coordination and organization of these components is largely a political process.

Figures and Tables:
Figure 1. Typology of intra-party groups

First paragraph of Conclusion:
Factions in the LDP and the DC experienced shifts along the organizational and motivational dimensions. From the 1950s to the 1980s, LDP factions became larger and better organized. Organizational development promoted the collective interests of faction members while subordinating policy concerns. Factions became more sophisticated as they came to depend less on their leaders, yet their activities were directed to a narrow range of goals: maximizing the number of politicians elected to each faction and ensuring that each member received a fair share of the spoils. The strength and sophistication of the factions subsequently eroded.