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Reiter Howard L,."Factional Persistence within Parties in the United States," Party Politics, 10 (May 2004), 251-271.

First Paragraph:
Factionalism within parties is one of the most widely discussed but undertheorized aspects of party politics. Aside from some definitional disputes, political scientists have done little to develop taxonomic or developmental approaches to intra-party factionalism. While some political scientists have spun typologies of factionalism within particular parties, their methodology has often been no more sophisticated than their own observations and hunches. Their claims may be plausible and even insightful, but they offer no methodology that is accessible to other scholars other than their own ingenuity; methodologically, they are like clever journalists. As Laver and Schofield (1990: 33) have pointed out, the reader is left with no guidance as to how to choose between two equally plausible taxonomies of a party's factions.

Figures and Tables:
Figure 1. Percent of shared variance accounted for by first, and first two, components, by sequences of four consecutive Democratic key votes, 1832-1992

Figure 2. Percent of shared variance accounted for by first, and first two, components, by sequences of four consecutive Republican key votes, 1868-1980

Figure 3. Percent of shared variance accounted for by first component, by sequences of four consecutive key votes, Democratic and Republican key votes, 1868-1980

Last Paragraph:
In sum, politics within parties is a necessary part of any full understanding of the politics of parties. Despite the evidence of a weakening of partisanship, parties as institutions continue to play a central role in democratic governance (Dalton and Wattenberg, 2000). How well they play that role, and how well they perform the functions that have long been attributed to them, depends to a substantial extent on the texture of the politics within them.

updated November 2013