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Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand, "From Dominant to Competitive Party System: The Zambian Experience 1991-2001," Party Politics, 10 (January, 2004), 49-68.

First Paragraph:
Zambia re-implemented multiparty democracy in 1991. Unlike many of the new democracies emerging in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s, in Zambia there was actually a change of government, with political leadership transferred from Kenneth Kaunda and the United National Independence Party (UNIP) to the former trade union leader Frederick Chiluba and the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD). With the completion of three consecutive elections (1991, 1996 and 2001) Zambia is an interesting case for studying the formation of a party system in the context of a democratizing country. In the 1991 elections, the MMD won the presidency as well as a dominant position in parliament, and in the 1996 elections its majority position increased further to 87 percent of the seats. The third multiparty elections on 27 December 2001 resulted in a more balanced, but also more fragmented, parliament in a closely contested election. Although the MMD retained control of the presidency, its share of parliamentary seats declined to 46 percent. Despite the first-past-the post (FPTP) electoral system, a stable two-party system has yet to emerge.

Figures and Tables:
Table 1. Votes in presidential elections 1991&endash;2001 (percent)
Table 2. Parliamentary elections 1991&endash;2001: votes and seats for the three largest parties (percent)
Table 3. Number of parliamentary candidates by party 1991&endash;2001
Appendix 1: Party Names and Dates of Formation`

Next to Last Paragraph:
We explain the changes observed primarily in the structure of political institutions in Zambia. The weak institutionalization of the parties is linked to the political framework in Zambia, where the presidency is overwhelmingly important. Parliamentary office and control of committee leadership remain poor bases from which parties can promote their own policies. Furthermore, the absence of regionally elected assemblies and weak local government structures implies that there are few alternative arenas where parties can groom prospective candidates or impact on the formulation or execution of public policies. The weakness of the party system is thus embedded in excessive power concentration in the political system. In the light of the December 2001 election results, the size of the opposition group should harbour for more lively parliamentary sessions than at any time in the past. But the first few months after the 2001 elections have not indicated that the new balance in the Zambian parliament will entirely change Zambian politics. In the new Mwanawasa administration, almost all of the ruling party's MPs enjoy the fruits of office as either a minister or a deputy minister. The debate over the election of the Speaker of the parliament and defections from the opposition parties to the MMD in recent months underline the weak foundations of the Zambian party system and suggest that many of the parties may not last through the election period. The recent inclusion of MPs from the opposition parties to the cabinet and the appointment of Nevers S. Mumba (president NCC) as the new vice-president in May this year, provide the most recent examples of the weakness of the party system.