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David Denemark, "Electoral Change, Inertia and Campaigns in New Zealand: The First Modern FPP Campaign in 1987 and the First MMP Campaign in 1996,"Party Politics, 9 (September 2003), 601-618.

First Paragraph:
Election campaigns -- their strategies, techniques and technologies -- are the product of the electoral systems within which they are waged (Katz, 1980). Because electoral rules determine the fundamental logic for translating votes into seats, they significantly affect the competitive calculus employed by parties and candidates to secure those votes, creating powerful incentives to adopt and utilize those techniques best-suited for maximizing the vote within a given set of electoral rules. Despite these imperatives, however, campaign tacticians and entrepreneurs are regularly constrained by the available financial and human resources, as well as by the inertia, uncertainty and distrust of change felt by those whose electoral fortunes may nonetheless hang in the balance --conflicting impetuses that are perhaps most evident in times of watershed electoral developments.

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Last Paragraph:
These two patterns of campaign change in New Zealand afford important lessons about the competing incentives that crystallize at times of political transition. They serve as reminders that parties -- though they aspire to organizational and strategic unity -- are not unitary actors, responding as one to the imperatives of adaptation. Rather, their differential responses to uncertainty point to the difficulties of political learning and adjustment, as political actors gauge the relative benefits and costs of change.