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Karl Magnus Johansson,"Party Elites in Mutilevel Europe: The Christian Democrats and the Single European Act," Party Politics, 8 (July, 2002), 423-439.

First Paragraph:
This article concerns itself with the role of party elites in the setting of European multilevel governance and transnationalization. Emphasis is placed on informal networks, elite socialization and policy coordination in the European Union (EU), with particular reference to the network of Christian Democrats within and around the European People's Party (EPP). I highlight elite-level activities within this network prior to and during the 1985 Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) that led to the Single European Act (SEA).

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Last Paragraph:
Like Raunio in his contribution to this volume, I conclude that Europeanization increases the gap between party elites and the rank-and-file, between the higher and lower echelons. Europeanization results in a changing power balance among competing elites within and between parties. Inevitably, there is the inequality of resources with regard to access to power structures. This conclusion must not necessarily contradict the assessment that political parties in one way or the other could further the democratization and legitimacy of the integration process and the political institutions. At least this case study demonstrates that elected politicians determine the direction and outcome of European integration.