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Paul Lucardie, "Prophets, Purifiers and Prolocutors: Towards a Theory on the Emergence of New Parties," Party Politics, 6 (April 2000), 175-185.

First Paragraph:
Newcomers are rarely given a warm welcome, especially when they claim their share of scarce resources. This applies to parties as well as people. New parties have to negotiate many hurdles before they win a seat in parliament, let alone a share of governmental power. In most party systems, only a few new parties make it to parliament, while a majority fall along the wayside. The purpose of this article is to discuss the factors causing the electoral success of the happy few.'

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Last Paragraph:
Empirical and historical data from the Netherlands have illustrated the hypotheses, but comparative research is required to test them. Some of the hypotheses presented here may have little validity elsewhere. The Dutch tradition of religious tolerance and institutionalized ideological pluralism (pillarization) may help purifying parties and to a lesser extent prophetic parties. The same tradition may reduce the chances for idiosyncratic parties and prolocutors that lack ideological roots. Comparisons with different as well as somewhat similar countries are needed to provide answers to these questions. Thus, research about new parties may throw more light on differences between political cultures, as well as between party systems.