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Charles D. Kenney, "Outsider and Anti-Party Politicians in Power: New Conceptual Strategies and Empirical Evidence from Peru," Party Politics, 4 (January 1998), 57-75.

First Paragraph:
Anti-party politicians and outsiders are not new to politics, but recently they have been receiving a great deal of attention, perhaps because some of the outsiders 'got in'. A review of the literature on the emergence and significance of outsiders and anti-party politicians raises a number of questions. Who count as 'anti-party politicians' and who should be considered outsiders'? Is every new political actor automatically an outsider? Is every opposition figure an anti-party politician? The objective of the first part of this article is to redefine the concepts of outsider and of anti-party politician in terms of party system origins and discourse, respectively.

Figures and Tables:
Table 1:Latin American political leaders by party system discourse and origins
Table 2: Peruvian legislators interviewed by party
Table 3: Peruvian legislators classified by party system origins and discourse
Table 4: Congressional parties by party system origins and discourse (%)
Table 5: Politicians' positions on specific issues by party system origins and discourse
Table 6: Left-right variable by party system origins and discourse (%)

Last Paragraph:
Using data gathered from the Parliamentary Elites of Latin America survey recently completed in Peru, I then examined the significance of these classifications for politics. Party system discourse and origins varied significantly with party membership and with views on three kinds of important political issues: (1) democracy, elections and parties, (2) human rights and the role of the armed forces, and (3) the economy, labor and the role of the state. Finally, I examined the relationship of party system discourse and origins to left-right identities. Contrary to widely shared assumptions, both anti-party and party-tolerant outsiders in Peru showed greater affinity for the center than for the right, while both groups showed a marked disaffinity for the political left. So although it is true in relative terms that outsiders self-locate further to the right than do insiders in Peru, it is also true that more of these outsiders self locate in the center than on the right in categorical terms.