Andrew M. Appleton and Daniel S. Ward, "Party Response to
Environmental Change: A Model of Organizational Innovation,"
Party Politics, 3 (July 1997), 341-362.
The burgeoning interest in the adaptive qualities of party
organizations has led many scholars in recent years to
formulate questions about change. It is perhaps axiomatic
that organizations have an inbuilt resistance to change. Yet
ecological theories of organizations (parties included) have
tended to emphasize the environmental imperative, either
organizations adapt to new conditions in the environment, or
they perish. Just how that adaptation occurs (or fails to
occur) in political parties has been the subject of a number
of inquiries of late.
Figures and Tables:
Figure 1: A model of party organizational innovation.
Table 1: Indicators of organizational innovation.
As Harmel and Janda (1994) recently noted, comparative data
on party organization are becoming more available, including
the contributions by the Katz and Mair team and their own
NSF-funded project. The concerted attempt by party scholars
to generate standardized organizational measures is opening
the way for rigorous hypothesis testing. This article is
intended as a contribution to refining and integrating
theories of party and organization in anticipation of
empirical testing as the data becomes widely available.