Wolfgang C. Müller, "Inside the Black Box: A
Confrontation of Party Organizational Change," Party
Politics, 3 (July 1997), 293-313.
Party change has been of interest to political scientists
since the early days of party research (see e.g. Michels,
1925). Research interests and approaches have varied
considerably. For the sake of simplicity we can distinguish
two major contemporary approaches to the problem of party
change: an environmentalist approach and a purposive-action
approach (Child and Kieser, 1981: 28-30). These approaches
do not directly contradict each other but clearly differ in
their emphases and research strategies.
Figures and Tables:
Figure 1: Potential sources of party change for the SPO,
Figure 2: SPO propaganda expenditure, 1949-77 (as % of total
What remains to be said is that the theory of Harmel and
Janda (1994) has worked extremely well in explaining the
crucial changes in the organization of the SPO that have
been addressed in this article. A proper test of the theory,
however, would require further quantatative testing, as
proposed by Harmel et al. (1995), as well as additional
in-depth case studies.