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Timothy J. Power, "Parties, Puppets and Paradoxes: Changing Attitudes Toward Party Institutionalization in Post-authoritarian Brazil," Party Politics, 3 (April 1997), 189-219.

First Paragraph:
The global transition to democracy is everywhere engendering new party systems or overhauling old ones. In the genesis of post-authoritarian party systems, there is considerable variation across countries and contexts. Some new democracies have re-established historical party systems that were suspended by authoritarian rule, while others have experienced significant partisan realignment during liberalization. Still other countries, particularly the postcommunist societies, went so long without partisan competition that party development begins from a virtual tabula rasa. Despite these differences, all emerging party systems have a common characteristic: they are saddled with the legacy of authoritarian rule. Continuities in personnel, institutions and practices color the early years of democratic politics.

Figures and Tables:
Table 1: Perception of party role in election victory.
Table 2: Perceived factors in election victory.
Table 3: Party line vs. personal beliefs in legislative voting.
Table 4: Orientation toward concept of party fidelity.
Table 5: Attitudes toward hypothetical sanctions against anti-party actions by politicians.
Table 6: Reported meetings with party leadership.
Table 7: Support for political democracy and party institutionalization by current party and authoritarian-era cohort.
Figure 1: Support for Political Democracy and Party Institutionalization in 1990.
Figure 2: Support for political democracy and party institutionalization in 1993.

Last Paragraph:
Paradoxes abound. Parties that were artificially strong under authoritarianism gave way to parties that were truly weak under democracy. Party-building measures were adopted by authoritarians and rejected by democrats. Because of the crisis of governability that ensued, a Congress that hastily undid party fidelity and other measures in May 1985 was beginning to reimpose some of these rules exactly one decade later. Should the transformation of attitudes continue and party system reform be implemented, Brazil may finally achieve compatibility between effective representative institutions and an effective representative regime.