Rudd Koole, "Cadre, Catch-All or Cartel?: A Comment on
the Notion of the Cartel Party," Party Politics, 2
(October 1996), 509-525.
Party research has been recently enriched by a new (ideal)
type of modern political party, the cartel party, introduced
by Katz and Mair (1995). The cartel party is portrayed as
characteristic of a fourth stage of party development. After
the 'elite party' of the first stage (19th century),the
'mass party' of the second (1880-1960), and the 'catch-all
party' of the third (after 1945), the 'cartel party' (after
1970) differs from the previous types by the
interpenetration of party and state and by a pattern of
inter-party collusion. The emergence of the cartel party has
implications for both the party system as a whole, where a
cartel of parties relying heavily on the resources of the
state makes it difficult for new parties to rise to power,
and the organization profile of each individual party within
Figures and Tables:
Figure 1: The position of political parties before the
introduction of general suffrage.
Figure 2: The position of political parties during the first
decades after the introduction of general suffrage.
Figure 3: The position of political parties today.
One could also try to formulate a typology of parties that
distinguishes between general types and subtypes (without
linking it too closely to a genealogy of parties). The cadre
party, the mass party and the catch-all party could serve as
general types; the electoral-professional party, the modern
cadre party, the programmatic party, the horizontal party,
the cartel party, and so on as subtypes. Thus, various types
of parties co-exist, without implying that one type is more
up to date than another. But whether cadre, catch-all or
cartel: political parties will continue to exist. Or as Katz
and Mair (1995:25) rightly state: 'there is little real
evidence to suggest that the age of party has waned'.