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Zsolt Enyedi, "Organizing a Subcultural Party in Eastern Europe," Party Politics, 2 (July, 1996), 377-396.

First Paragraph:
The dominance of electoral-professional parties seems to characterize both the western and the eastern part of the European continent. The process of individualization and atomization, a major factor behind the disappearance of mass parties, was further strengthened in the East by the deliberate policies of the communist regimes. The Hungarian government's demobilization strategy proved to be especially successful in undermining the collective political identities in society (Körösényi, 1991).

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Last Paragraph:
The demobilization strategy of the Kádárist regime, the lack of mass participation in the transition period and the much-studied effects of the post-industrial era (that are as valid in Central and Eastern Europe as anywhere else in the developed world) lead together to individualistic value structures that make the revival of mass parties very unlikely (Kopecky, 1995). But this fact does not necessarily mean that only 'electoral-professional'-type parties, organizations far removed from civil society, might survive. There are still parties in the region with a long-lasting cultural tradition which seem to be orientated towards providing non-political services for their constituency. They are deriving the resources for these services, however, no longer from their members, but from the state. Whether this kind of party formation, that relies as heavily on the state as the 'cartel party' described by Katz and Mair (1995), and at the same time turns with its services towards the civil society as do the mass parties, is a transitory phenomenon or a long-lasting pattern.