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Andreas Schedler, "Anti-Political-Establishment Parties," Party Politics, 2 (July, 1996), 291-312.

First Paragraph:
Since the mid-1980s and, above all, since the emblematic annus mirabilis of 1989, numerous anti-political-establishment parties have entered the political arena in old as well as in new democracies. Often described as populist or extremist, these new confrontational parties paint vivid, colorful pictures of policy failure. They accuse established parties of forming an exclusionary cartel, unresponsive and unaccountable, and they portray public officials as a homogeneous class of lazy, incompetent, self-enriching and power-driven villains.

Figures and Tables:
Figure 1: The anti-political triangle.
Figure 2: Modes of opposition.

Last Paragraph:
Second, he could try to drive anti-political-establishment parties out of their position of semiloyalty. That is, either try to discredit them by imputing anti-democratic motives to them; or try to integrate them into the party system by offering recognition and even cooperation in case of 'good conduct', that is, in case of unequivocal democratic behavior. In either case, we are reminded of Juan Linz's warning: 'Much sophistication is needed...to discern which groups and individuals from the [semi-loyal] opposition...can become loyal or honestly neutral but compliant citizens' (Linz, 1978: 34).