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Sarah Perrigo, "Gender Struggles in the British Labour Party from 1979 to 1995," Party Politics , 1 (July, 1995), 407-417.

First Paragraph:
Since the late 1970s, women have systematically organized to change the British Labour Party from within. This report examines the impact of gender struggles on the party during the past 16 years.

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Last Paragraph:
Perhaps the real failure of gender struggles in the party up to the present is the failure to penetrate deeply into the party culture at the grass roots. This is probably true not just because of gender struggles but also applies to other issues that challenge traditional class politics in the party.Modernization itself has been a top-down process in which members have acquiesced rather than actively supported. Party modernization has created an opportunity for women to gain support for gender issues, but only in ways that are compatible with the leadership's conception of what modernization means and requires. Though quotas and positive action may not be sufficient in themselves to shift the unequal power relations, they will if fully implemented provide a new context and a more favourable site for future struggles.