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Gunnar Grendstad,"Party Followership and Leadership in Norway: A Political Culture Approach," Party Politics , 1 (April, 1995), 221-243.

First Paragraph:
Under the leadership of Mr Einar Gerhardsen, a previous prime minister of Norway and the Labor Party chair until 1965, the top leaders of the Labor Party made decisions, implemented personnel changes, and subsequently informed those affected by stating, 'some of us have been talking together'. Thus, when Mr Trygve Bratteli (later to become party chair and prime minister himself) was appointed parliamentary leader by Gerhardsen and showed up for his first meeting in the parliamentary caucus in 1964, Bratteli learned that the other parliamentarians had no knowledge of his candidacy for the leadership position (Heradstveit, 1981: 259).

Figures and Tables:
Figure 1: Followership as support and demand for leadership.
Table 1: Factor solutions for the grid and group dimensions, pooled sample 1982.
Table 2: The relative sizes of cultural followerships, Norwegian political parties 1982 and 1990.
Figure 2: The cultural gravity of political parties, Norway 1982 and 1990.
Figure 3: The relative size of cultural followership in political parties, Norway 1982 and 1990.
Table 3: Norwegian party leadership.
Table 4: Correlations between leadership and cultural followership of Norwegian political parties.

Last Paragraph:
Correlated with data on political party leadership, the analyses showed that the larger the cultural followership of individualism and egalitarianism within a party, the greater the party leadership turnover. And as the cultures of hierarchy and fatalism increase within a party, the higher the longevity, perceived efficacy and experience of the party's leadership. Thus, throughout the 1980s, the anti-leadership cultures of individualism and egalitarianism increased at the expense of the pro-leadership cultures of fatalism and hierarchy.